Alternative fuel vehicles


Find answers to your questions and your customers’ questions about PEVs and charging infrastructure. Directs you to additional information to help you make the best decisions for your fleet. Chemical quality of the fuel should meet legal standards in terms of environmental protection.

The performance of MEC has significantly improved within just a few years of its discovery (Logan et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2005). A few research groups also started working toward integrating the wastewater treatment with MEC to define an economically feasible hydrogen production methodology. A few pilot-scale operations also have been demonstrated, in spite of some drawbacks in process optimization (Cusick et al., 2011). MEC was also reported to utilize the acid-rich effluents generated from fermentation bioreactor (Lalaurette et al., 2009). Further to this research, a new process has been developed to convert the inherent energy of the wastewater into commercially viable commodities. CO2 from the atmosphere and industrial off-gases is being considered as a major carbon source for this process.

Sticks and Carrots

This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems—including engines, microturbines, and fuel cells— and hybrid propulsion systems. However, considerable research is under way to develop new conversion processes that would allow ethanol to be produced from “cellulosic biomass,” specifically the green portions of plants made of cellulose. One transition path is for governments to strongly encourage development and commercialization of fuel cell (or electric) vehicles, especially demonstration programs and small-scale production to speed learning. Concurrent with (or slightly preceding) the beginnings of significant vehicle sales in targeted areas, a strong push toward developing hydrogen (or electric) refueling infrastructure will be needed.

Is there an alternative to fuel for cars?

Liquid petroleum gas (LPG), is an alternative fuel that works much in the same way as petrol and diesel.

Natural gas and ethanol fuels have a tiny share of the market, but are still growing. Electric vehicles attained an even tinier share of the market and appear now to have been an experiment that will be abandoned. Liquid biofuels commercially available today are mainly ‘first generation’ biofuels. Blends with conventional fossil fuels are compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, and most vehicles and vessels are compatible with the blends currently available (E10 – petrol with up to 10 % bioethanol and diesel with up to 7 % FAME biodiesel content). Higher blends may require minor adaptations of power trains, and corresponding fuel standards need to be developed.

Drive Change. Drive Electric.

Drop-in 100% SAF is not yet qualified by ASTM International, an organization that develops technical standards. Natural gas in liquefied form (LNG) with high energy density offers a cost-efficient alternative to diesel for waterborne activities (transport, offshore services, and fisheries), trucks and rail, with lower pollutant and CO2 emissions and higher energy efficiency. LNG is particularly suited to long-distance road freight transport for which alternatives to diesel are extremely limited. Trucks might be able to meet the more stringent pollutant emission limits of future EURO VI standards cost efficiently. Battery electric aircrafts are rapidly growing in terms of technology and market development.

Willingness to pay these costs will largely reflect the level of determination of the public to move transport onto a more sustainable course. Of course, ongoing R&D programs can help to reduce costs before a transition begins, especially in the areas of fuel cell system production cost and on-board hydrogen storage. But chances are that the initial costs of both vehicles and refueling infrastructure will be high. Electric- or hydrogen-powered propulsion systems may offer attractive ways in which to eliminate internal combustion, and the emissions it produces, from vehicles, but they may simply move this process to central power plants (which produce the fuel). This would help to move pollutant emissions away from cities, but unless electricity or hydrogen is produced in a manner with low carbon emissions, the net GHG benefits may be small. The most obvious options for low-carbon production of electricity and hydrogen are renewable fuels and nuclear power.

New Catalyst Lowers Cost for Producing Environmentally Sustainable Hydrogen from Water

The basic parameter that determines the conditions of thermal use of sewage sludge is calorific value in the working state (Table 3.). Its value increases with the increase in the amount of organic substances and content of dry mass. The content of components that impact negatively on the product obtained in cement installations has to be constantly monitored, whereas the expected parameters of the alternative fuel require individual choice. CFM International, a joint company between GE and Safran Aircraft Engines, has also launched a demonstration program in collaboration with Airbus to ground and flight test a direct combustion engine fueled by hydrogen. CFM will modify the combustor, fuel system, and control system of a GE Passport turbofan to run on hydrogen, which doesn’t generate carbon emissions during the combustion process.

Alternative fuels – any fuel that is not petroleum based – are looked at as a potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Examples of alternative fuels include biodiesel, ethanol, electricity from renewable sources, propane, and hydrogen. The use of alternative fuels has the potential to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released by cars and trucks, which account for the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States at 28 percent.

Detailed operating conditions and equipment designs for each process were obtained. Stainless steel was used for the trans-esterification reactor in the designs for the alkali-catalyzed processes in this study. The material of construction of other equipment in the alkali-catalyzed processes was carbon steel.

  • As a result, few OECD countries consider alternative fuels as an important near-term option for mitigating energy security concerns and GHG emissions.
  • Battery-powered vehicles are much closer to commercial production than fuel-cell vehicles, but as yet none of the major manufacturers have committed to large-scale production (although some small-scale production by start-up companies is expected).
  • For economists, the standard policy response to these externalities is the imposition of a tax equal to the marginal value of the externality so that the market price would represent the full social cost of petroleum consumption.
  • Pure biodiesel does not contain petroleum, but it can be mixed with petroleum diesel.
  • Examples of alternative fuels include biodiesel, ethanol, electricity, propane, compressed natural gas, and hydrogen.

Energy density is widely recognised to be the bottleneck for the zero-emission electric powertrains. With growing efficiency rates, Li-ion batteries became adequate in 2019 for small aircraft. These vehicles are mostly used for short distances in smaller airports and flight schools. One can’t know for certain how effective incentives-in the form of purchase subsidies-have been at spurring hybrid, pure electric, and fuel-cell vehicle sales. However, it seems likely that although hybrid sales have benefited from the credits, consumer satisfaction with the vehicles, combined with fear of ever-higher gasoline prices, has been a substantial motivator.

The plan describes a 2050 Vision that extends the plan outcomes beyond the milestone years of 2012, 2017, and 2022 and lays a foundation for building a multi-fuel transportation energy future for California. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a natural gas that is extracted from wells and compressed. Natural gas is a fossil fuel comprised mostly of methane and is cleaner burning than gasoline or diesel fuel. Natural gas vehicles have been found to produce less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline vehicles, but very little natural gas consumption is currently used for transportation fuel. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas, is a by-product of natural gas processing and crude oil refining. It has a high octane rating and excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

Alternative Fuel

Some vehicles and engines are designed for by the manufacturer. Others are converted to run on an alternative fuel by modifying the engine controls and fueling system from the original configuration. It has been used since the beginning of the 19th century as a fuel in motorised vehicles, in locomotives (England) or in tramways (New Orleans, US).